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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The U.K. is the abbreviation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland is called Ulster.   

The United Kingdom is very small compared to many countries in the world. However there are only nine countries with more people and Londonis the world’s second big city. The main areas of highland are in Scotland, Walesand Cambria. In the center of England there is a range of hills called the Penniness, which is also known as the backbone of England. The highest mountains are in Scotlandand Wales.Ben Nevis is 1436 meters high. It’s the highest   top of  Great Britain. One more  high mountain  is Snowden (1056 meters). Of coarse they are very small compared to other mountains in the world. (Everest is more than 8000 meters.)

In fact everything in the U.K. is small. The longest rivers are The Severn (354km) and The Thames (290km). Despite of this fact there is a great deal of variety within the islands of the U.K.  

Not all from the British history is recorded. The name has Greek, Latin and Celtic roots. Britany is the North-Western part of France. The name was taken in the fifth or sixth century A.D. In the pre-history period Celts were the latest citizens. It was a long period which is called pureCeltic period.

Many foreigners say Englandand English when they mean Britain. It is very irritative for five million people who live in Scotland, about three million in Wales and million and a half in Northern  Ireland, who are certainly not English. 46 million people live in England. However the people from Scotland,Wales and Northern Irelandare British.

The flag of the U.K. is known as the Union Jack. It is made up of three crosses: two red and one white. It embodies the emblems of three countries united under one sovereign. The emblems, that appear on the flag, are the crosses of three Patron Saints. The red cross is the main one – Saint George for England. The white diagonal cross on the blue ground is of Saint Andrew for Scotland. The red diagonal cross on the white ground is of Saint Patric for Ireland. The Saint Patron of Wales is Saint David.

There is a Shield in the official court-of-arms. There are shown various royal emblems of different parts of Britain. Three lions are of England, one dragon is of Scotland, the Harp is of Ireland. It is surrounded by the ribbonbearing the moto: Evil be to him who evil thinks. The shield is supported bу the English Lion and the Scottish Unicorn, and it is surmounted by the royal crown.  Below there is the moto: God and my right. The plant badges are red rose (England), shamrock (Ireland), thistle (Scotland), daffodil and leek (Wales).


the abbreviation – сокращение

compared to– по сравнению с

However [hauˈevə] – хотя, к тому же

Highland – высокогорье

range of hills – горная цепь

backbone– хребет, позвоночник

variety– разнообразие

within– в течение, на протяжении, в пределах

root - корень

pure - чистый

irritative- раздражающий

embodу – воплощать

sovereign [ˈsɒvəriŋ]– вассал,правитель

Patron Saint – святой покровитель

Saint George – святой Георгий

on the blue ground – на голубом фоне

Shield –щит

court-of-arms – герб

ribbon -лента

moto– девиз

to be supported by – поддерживаться чем-либо

Unicorn - единорог

to be surmounted by – увенчиваться чем-либо

plant badges– растения-символы

shamrock – трилистник, клевер

thistle – чертополох

daffodil – нарцисс

leek– лук-порей